Suggested Books To Read During Your General Surgery Residency (Read More)
Bailey & Love's Surgery, 27th Edition Surgery Essence by Pritesh Singh (PGMEE) Sabiston's Textbook of Surgery
Farquharson's Textbook of Operative General Surgery, 10th Edition Surgery Sixer for NBE by Rajamahendran Surgery PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Thirteenth Edition
Hello sir

I have recently finished DNB Ortho and i have also cleared MRCS Part A. Planning to go for Part B in 2019. Sir I was wondering if u could tell me about prospects of getting training posts in Singapore. As I hear it is difficult to get one in the UK.

I read on your page 'World Surgery Forum' that one of the countries where MRCS may have recognition is Singapore. But I am unable to find much info about the system etc there

Please help ... Thank you!

International Medical Graduates can take following routes to practice in Singapore 

Indian Graduates from following Medical Colleges can apply for fellowships directly without giving any exams:
  1. All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 
  2. Christian Medical College, Vellore 
  3. Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune 
  4. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry
  5. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi
  6. Grant Medical College, Mumbai
  7. St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore
  8. Madras Medical College, Chennai
If you are not from any of these 8 colleges in India, then the next option is having a recognized medical qualification from any of these countries: UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, US and Canada. Thus MRCS is one qualification which you can obtain in India and it makes you eligible to apply for fellowships/ jobs in Singapore.

Singapore is not very conducive for foreign doctors from developing countries to become consultant grade but they have several gaps in the system for which they need doctors from India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, etc to work as Medical Officers.

Following is a typical job description posted on a job website based in Singapore:

Job Description
Responsible for providing care to patients in the clinics/ hospitals with acute and/ or chronic illnessesCardiology or Cardio Thoracic discipline Choice of other disciplines availableFull time or part time employment
Min Singapore Medical Council Recognized Medical Degree (MBBS)At least 3 to 5 years' experience as a Medical Officer after housemanshipApplicants with MRCP or MRCS are strongly encouraged to apply. Salary package comes with good remuneration, relocation & housing allowances

Another description of requirements as posted on website of Singapore General Hospital

Residents: Requirements/ PrerequisiteSuccessful candidates may be offered 1 to 2 years contract.
Candidate must possess basic Medical Degree and relevant post-graduate qualification, such as M Med, MRCP, MCEM, MRCS or equivalent.
Recognised by the Singapore Medical Council
Minimum 5 years of post-housemanship experience

Other Links to read regarding Clinical Fellowships in Singapore after MRCS.

Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma: Diagnosis and Management
  • Common cause of disability 
  • Most common causes:
    –  RTA, Fall, Penetrating trauma, Sports 
  • Highly prone to traumatic injury:
    • Mobile, relatively unprotected, and its high position 
    • 60% of all spinal injuries occur in the cervical spine 
    • Subaxial cervical spine injuries include:
      • 2/3rd of all cervical fractures
      • 75% of all cervical dislocations 
  • One third of injuries occur at the level of C2, and one half of injuries occur at the level of C6 or C7.
For more details, check out the PowerPoint above.


  1. Streptococcus agalactiae 
  2. Hemophilus influenza 
  3. Staphylococcus epidermiditis 
  4. Neisseria meningitidis


  • The most common organisms for neonatal meningitis is streptococcus agalactiae 
  • Hemophilus influenza was the most common organism before the introduction of vaccination 
  • Neisseria meningitidis is most common in adults 
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis is responsible for 75 percent of shunt related meningitis


1. Subventricular zone 
2. Substantia nigra 
3. Subgranular zone 
4. 1 and 3


Neurogenesis in adults occurs in the subventricular zone lining the ventricles and at the subgranular zone at the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. 

Neurons and glial cells are produced by multipotent stem cells

Contrary to the long-held belief that neurogenesis tapers off with the end of early postnatal development, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. 

Adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are responsible for the generation of new neurons and reside in two main locations in the adult brain: 
  • the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles, and 
  • the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) 
Gage, 2000)  (Doetsch et al., 1999Bonaguidi et al., 2011)


1. Intracerebral hemorrhage
2. Injury to aorta
3. Injury to intercostal artery
4. Injury to venous plexus


Blood observed after a LP in the first tube is usually traumatic and may be due to injury to the spinal venous plexus.

Often the fluid will clear as succeeding tubes are filled. If the red blood cells have been in the spinal fluid for some time, xanthochromia will be present