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Bailey & Love's Surgery, 27th Edition Surgery Essence by Pritesh Singh (PGMEE) Sabiston's Textbook of Surgery
Farquharson's Textbook of Operative General Surgery, 10th Edition Surgery Sixer for NBE by Rajamahendran Surgery PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Thirteenth Edition
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What is Poland's Syndrome?

Poland’s syndrome consists of hypoplasia or complete absence of the breast, costal cartilage and rib defects, hypoplasia of the subcutaneous tissues of the chest wall, and brachysyndactyly.

The cause of Poland syndrome is unknown. However, an interruption of the embryonic blood supply to the arteries that lie under the collarbone (subclavian arteries) at about the 46th day of embryonic development is the prevailing theory.

Poland's Syndrome
Poland's Syndrome
    Image above shows a 15-year-old girl with Poland's syndrome of left breast. A, With shoulder girdle musculature actively contracted. B, There is accentuation of the left hypoplastic breast. There is absence of the sternal head of the pectoralis major although the clavicular head is present.      (Image Courtesy of Dr. Hollis H. Caffee, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.)


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