Suggested Books To Read During Your General Surgery Residency (Read More)
Bailey & Love's Surgery, 27th Edition Surgery Essence by Pritesh Singh (PGMEE) Sabiston's Textbook of Surgery
Farquharson's Textbook of Operative General Surgery, 10th Edition Surgery Sixer for NBE by Rajamahendran Surgery PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Thirteenth Edition
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Understanding Skin Involvement in Ca Breast: T4b

What is Skin Involvement or T4b ?
Edema (including peau d’ orange) or ulceration of the skin of the breast or satellite skin nodules confined to the breast.

What is not Skin Involvement or T4b ?
Dimpling of the skin and nipple retraction is not considered skin involvement.



Skin involvement in breast showing a skin nodule  surrounded by edema (peau d orange)
Skin involvement in breast showing a skin nodule 
surrounded by edema (peau d orange)
How does peau d’ orange appearance develop?
Localised edema (peau d’orange) develops when drainage of lymph fluid from the skin is disrupted by infiltration of lymphatics by metastatic cells.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Read more about Ca Breast:

WHAT IS THE REASON FOR PUCKERING OR SKIN RETRACTION IN BREAST CANCER?
http://www.worldsurgeryforum.net/2016/05/what-is-reason-for-puckering-or-skin.html

SKIN PUCKERING AND PEAU D ORANGE APPEARANCE IN BREAST CANCER
http://www.worldsurgeryforum.net/2016/05/skin-puckering-and-peau-d-orange.html

WHAT IS THE ACCURACY OF CLINICAL DETERMINATION OF AXILLARY LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN CA BREAST?
http://www.worldsurgeryforum.net/2016/06/what-is-accuracy-of-clinical.html

MECHANISM OF METASTASIS FROM CA BREAST TO BATSON'S PLEXUS AND LIVER
http://www.worldsurgeryforum.net/2016/06/mechanism-of-metastasis-from-ca-breast.html