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Case Sheet Proforma: Breast Lump

Case sheet proforma for History taking and Examination of Breast Lump.




Socioeconomic Status:

Presenting Complaints

• Lump in the right/left breast for last………….. months/years.

Also Read:

History of Presenting Illness

  • H/O Lump

  • Site

  • Duration

  • Onset

  • Progress of the swelling:

  • Associated

  • H/O Pain

  • Site

  • Duration

  • Onset

  • Character: Usually dull-aching

  • Radiation

  • Relieving factors 

  • Aggravating factors

  • H/O Ulcer

  • Site

  • Duration

  • Onset

  • Progress of the ulcer

  • Associated


BEST Neuroanatomy books for MBBS, NEET SS & Residents

Best book for Neuroanatomy for 1st Year MBBS

Though ‘Snell’s Clinical Neuroanatomy’ is one of the world's most popular neuroanatomy books for Medical students, but it is quite detailed for a student of 1st-year MBBS. So if you want to go easy with your Neuroanatomy in your 1st-year MBBS or time is a constraint, you can go for Vishram Singh or Inderbir Singh Neuroanatomy. They take care of basics in an easily digestible manner and cover the subject enough for 1st year MBBS. Also, you can supplement your study with video lectures of Dr. Najeeb.

Vishram Singh Neuroanatomy: 

  • Good set of diagrams
  • Very simple and easy to grasp

Inderbir Singh

  • Well illustrated and easy to retain

Best Book for Neuroanatomy for NEET SS Neurosurgery Preparation

Best Book for Neuroanatomy from MCQ perspective for NEET SS Neurosurgery: Snell's Neuroanatomy


  • Includes Clinical notes with neuroanatomy, covers many important mcq points
  • MCQs and clinical problems with detailed explanations of the answers, many MCQs can be directly asked in the exams
  • Additional online resources in the form of an interactive atlas and 450 USMLE-style review questions - again many of these MCQs are based on important high yield topics

Best Book for Neuroanatomy for MCh/ DNB Neurosurgery Residents/ FRCS Neurosurgery

Book for Basic Neuroanatomy for Neurosurgery Residents

There are limited number of real human brains and sections. Most of the diagrams are schematics and not completely applicable to surgical practice.

This interesting, far reaching book gives rich visual direction on all parts of neuroanatomy, along with fine art by ace clinical artist Frank H. Netter, MD. Brief tables feature significant parts of each structure, outfitting you with the basic information you have to ace this intricate control. Most of the diagrams are schematics, good for developing concepts.

  • Coverage of both regional and systemic neurosciences 
  • Netter and Netter-style illustrations to highlight key neuroanatomical concepts and clinical correlations.
  • Reflects the current understanding of the neural components and supportive tissue, regions, and systems of the brain, spinal cord, and periphery.
  • Easy to memorize overview of anatomy, function, and clinical relevance.
  • The succinct and useful format utilizes tables and short text to offer easily accessible "at-a-glance" information.
More Info: 

Highlights cross-sectional brain stem anatomy and side-by-side comparisons of horizontal sections, CTs and MRIs.

Student Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience includes access -- on a variety of devices -- to the complete text, 14 videos, and images from the book.
Expanded coverage of cellular and molecular neuroscience provides essential guidance on signaling, transcription factors, stem cells, evoked potentials, neuronal and glial function, and a number of molecular breakthroughs for a better understanding of normal and pathological conditions of the nervous system.

Micrographs, radiologic imaging, and stained cross sections supplement illustrations for a comprehensive visual understanding.

Book for Surgical Neuroanatomy for Neurosurgery Resident

Rhoton's Cranial Anatomy and Surgical Approaches

  • 2000 full-color illustrations
  • the best book to understand microsurgical anatomy of the brain for neurosurgeons at any career stage

  • This book presents neurosurgical cadaveric anatomy by detailing approaches in the same operative position patients would be placed in during a real operative procedure. 
  • It includes:
    • all commonly used cranial and cranial base approaches
    • anterior, posterior, anterolateral, and posterolateral approaches to all segments of the spine
    • all commonly performed procedures on peripheral nerves
    • endoscopic approaches to cranial and spinal neurosurgery

Book for Radiological Neuroanatomy for Neurosurgery Residents:

Netter’s Correlative Imaging: Neuroanatomy

Interpret the complexities of neuroanatomy like never before with the unparalleled coverage and expert guidance from Drs. Srinivasan Mukundan and Thomas C. Lee in this outstanding volume of the Netter’s Correlative Imaging series. Beautiful and instructive Netter paintings and illustrated cross-sections created in the Netter style are presented side by side with high-quality patient images and key anatomic descriptions to help you envision and review intricate neuroanatomy.

Cranial Neuroimaging and Clinical Neuroanatomy: Atlas of MR Imaging and Computed Tomography

Detailed brain anatomy shown in the three orthogonal planes; two-page spreads showing imaging studies keyed to the graphics using numbers that are consistent throughout. Graphic representation of the major arterial and venous territories and CNS spaces, supra- and infratentorial It revealed in multiplanar parallel sections, including detail on the potential sites of lesions and corresponding neurologic deficits

New to the fourth edition:

All X-ray and CT-/MR images replaced with new high-resolution CT and MR images

High resolution 3-Tesla MR images of the brainstem, 7-Tesla-images, fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM)

New material on temporal bone, brain maturation, neurofunctional systems

Clinical context updated and expanded

Neuroradiology: The Requisites (Requisites in Radiology) 

Highlights 1,200 great neuroimaging pictures. Makes it simple to find any topic of interest because of an intelligent association by ailments and areas.  Summarizes differential diagnoses in quick-reference tables to reinforce important facts. Focuses on essentials to pass the exams.

  Eligibility requirements for FRCS General Surgery

Following are eligibility requirements for appearing for FRCS General Surgery:

Now it is not compulsory to crack MRCS for JSCFE FRCS (International). You can appear in FRCS General Surgery even if you don't have cleared MRCS. 

There are two versions of FRCS, one for domestic and other for International candidates.

  • JCIE  FRCS (Joint Committee on Intercollegiate Examinations) (domestic - UK & Ireland) 
  • JSCFE FRCS (Joint Surgical Colleges’ Fellowship Examinations) (international)

Being an Indian medical graduate currently working as a General Surgeon, you will have to appear for JSCFE FRCS General Surgery. 

To appear for this exam you need to have a minimum of 6 years of experience to be just eligible to write the exam. 3 Year of your General Surgery residency experience + 3 years of Post residency experience. 

For this you need to provide evidence in form of following:

What you'll need at the time of application for FRCS General Surgery?

  • Medical Qualification – year/country obtained (Candidate should have completed a locally recognized General Surgery residency program)
  • MRCS – month/year obtained [if applicable, not mandatory]
  • Your three signed Structured References (pdf format)
  • Curriculum Vitae (pdf format)
  • Summary of Operative Experience -Logbook in prescribed format (pdf format)
  • Photocopy of your passport (identification page)

Structured References required for eligibility of your training for FRCS General Surgery

  • The principal referee must be the applicant’s current of Head of Department or Head of the Recognised Training Committee/Programme in which the applicant has participated 

  • The  second  referee must  be a  senior  clinician who  has worked  with  the applicant and  has knowledge of the applicant’s work in his/her specialty within the last two years 

  • The  third  referee  must  be  a  senior  clinician  who  has  worked  with  the  applicant  and  has knowledge of the applicant’s work in his/her specialty within the last two years

What is the Exam Format for FRCS General Surgery?

Section 1 examinations from 1 January 2021 the format will be as follows: 
  • Paper 1 120 Single Best Answer [SBA] (2 hours 15 mins) 
  • Paper 2 120 Single Best Answer [SBA] (2 hours 15 mins) 
Once you pass the Section 1 exam, you will receive a ‘Eligibility to Proceed’ certificate by email, after which you will be allowed to appear for the Section 2 exam.

Section 2 examinations: Clinical component consisting of a series of carefully designed and structured interviews on clinical topics, some being scenario based (structured orals) and some being patient based.

Allowed Number of Examination Attempts for FRCS General Surgery

Candidates are given up to a maximum of 7 years to complete the examination process as follows: 
  • Section 1(MCQ):  Candidates will have a maximum of 4 attempts with no re‐entry  
  • Section 2 (OSCE):  Candidates will have a maximum of 4 attempts with no re‐entry 


Read other related Posts regarding FRCS Preparation

Questions from readers regarding MRCS Part A/B and FRCS General surgery

Hi Sir , Saw your post in LGS about FRCS .
Just wanted to ask 1 doubt.
Myself , i completed MS General surgery and i am working here in india as Asst Prof since past 5 years.
I wish to relocate to UK.
My ultimate aim is to become a consultant there .
However , i could find that there are 2 boards of FRCS and international FRCS is not of much importance when it comes to working in UK . 
Is it true sir?
Anyways i decided to appear for MRCS PART A now due to this . 
But if i am wrong , i will prepare for FRCS from here itself 
Can u please guide me regarding this 🙏

Response: If relocation to the UK is your priority, clear MRCS A and B first, then IELTS, get GMC registration, get a training job (matching your experience level) , and then give FRCS General Surgery there...



FRCS General Surgery Section 1: 500 SBAs and EMIs

Great initial book to kick start prep.

SBAs and EMIs for the General Surgery FRCS (Oxford Higher Specialty Training)

  • questions appeared to be of higher level and more closer to exam questions
  • 600 Single Best Answers (SBAs) and Extended Matching Items (EMIs)
  • available as kindle edition in India

FRCS General Surgery: Section 1 Practice Questions


  • Excellent quality of questions at a very reasonable price of 35 GBP / 3000 INR for 4 months.
  • It has like 1500 questions most of which do reflect the actual questions / scenarios in the exam.


  • costlier than eFRCS, costs around 80 GBP for 4 months
  • phone app which is really cool since you can use it to solve questions on the go. 

Core Topics in General and Emergency Surgery: A Companion to Specialist Surgical Practice

Companion Series – General and Emergency surgery and your specialty book are usually read. Some candidates read all the books in the series OR Bailey and Love OR Sabiston


FRCS General Surgery Viva Topics and Revision Notes (MasterPass)

Info: What are the indications for necrosectomy? How you perform an EUA for acute peri-anal sepsis? What do you understand by the term Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT)? Remember: this is a consultant's exam, and giving a range of options is not good enough. You must tell the examiner what you as a consultant are going to do. The FRCS is a uniquely challenging prospect; highly detailed, wide-ranging and encompassing both theory and practice. Preparation for this exam can be very difficult, and resources tailored to it are scarce. As the consolidated notes of a recent successful candidate, this book is an essential resource when preparing for the viva. The wide variety of questions require you to define, diagnose or choose between treatment options, while MCQs and SBAs help you to objectively evaluate your progress - a unique supplement to your study plan. Answers provided are comprised of an invaluable combination of detailed written answers and lists that will remind you of key points and help you structure your preparation.

Info: a concise revision guide for the FRCS General Surgery Intercollegiate exam serving as a companion for the trainee throughout the course of their six-year training rotation. It reflects the exact framework of the exam syllabus issued by the Joint Committee on Higher Surgical Training (JCHST), and contains the most recently amended guidelines. The question and answer style used is a popular and effective method that lends itself perfectly to studying either alone or as a group, wherein one acts as examiner and the other as candidate. Further, the exam is very clinically orientated, with vivas based on a clinical scenario, using patients and images as method of initiating clinical discussion. This book will act as supplementary reading for any course relating to the FRCS exit examination in general surgery. Both the authors and main contributors have passed the FRCS exam in general surgery and have many years experience in postgraduate medical education

Preparation approach for FRCS

Check out this youtube video for more information on the preparation approach:

Conclusion: Better to focus on scenario based reading and practice rather than reading textbooks for the Section 2 OSCE exam.

Also check out this Presentation related to FRCS General Surgery Preparation:   

What is the difference between MRCS and FRCS ?

Full form of MRCS is Member of the Royal College of Surgeons

It is like a beginner degree to enter into a career of surgery. It is similar to qualifying your NEET PG entrance exam and selecting MS/ DNB General Surgery or Orthopaedics or ENT as your stream.

 The MRCS examination is a crucial milestone for a surgical career in the UK; it determines whether a surgical trainee possesses the correct knowledge, skills and attributes to complete basic training and to progress to higher levels of specialist surgical training. 

It doesn't make you a consultant in any branch but opens up new avenues to pursue a full fledged career in surgery and allied specialties. 

Click the links to know more  about MRCS exam preparation:

How to prepare for MRCS Part A?

How to prepare for MRCS Part B?









Full form of FRCS is Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons

It is a professional qualification required to practise as a surgeon in the United Kingdom. This post nominal can be obtained after working for 6 years in a particular subspecialty that you choose and then qualifying the FRCS exam for the same subspecialty. After obtaining this degree, you will considered a consultant in that particular surgical subspecialty.

This roughly translates to MCh ( Super speciality ) in case of India.

There are two versions of FRCS, one for domestic and other for International candidates.

  • JCIE  FRCS (Joint Committee on Intercollegiate Examinations) (domestic - UK & Ireland) 
  • JSCFE FRCS (Joint Surgical Colleges’ Fellowship Examinations) (international)

JSCFE FRCS (International) can be obtained in following surgical subspecialties:

  1. Cardiothoracic
  2. General Surgery
  3. Neurosurgery
  4. Otolaryngology
  5. Trauma & Orthopaedic
  6. Urology
FRCS for Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Paediatric Surgery, Plastic Surgery and Vascular Surgery are not available while you are in India.

JCIE FRCS (Domestic) can be obtained in following surgical subspecialties:
  1. Cardiothoracic
  2. General Surgery
  3. Neurosurgery
  4. Otolaryngology
  5. Trauma & Orthopaedic
  6. Urology
  7. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
  8. Paediatric Surgery
  9. Plastic Surgery
  10. Vascular Surgery

Can you do FRCS after MCh Surgical Gastroenterology?

These are the FRCS specialties you can opt for while being in India:

-General Surgery
-Trauma & Orthopaedic

FRCS for Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Paediatric Surgery, Plastic Surgery and Vascular Surgery are not available while you are in India.

I don't think it will make sense doing FRCS General Surgery after doing MCh Surgical Gastroenterology.

Books for FRCS Cardiothoracic Surgery Preparation

Books for FRCS Neurosurgery  Preparation

Books for FRCS Otolaryngology  Preparation

Books for FRCS Trauma and Orthopaedics  Preparation

Books for FRCS Urology  Preparation
Exam Pattern and Best Books for Preparation of INI CET Exam (AIIMS PG Entrance Exam)


What is INI CET Exam?

  • INI CET stands for Institute of National Importance Combined Entrance Test. 
  • It is a Combined Entrance Test (CET) for admission into postgraduate courses [MD, MS, DM (6 yrs), MCh (6 yrs) and MDS] at Institutes of National Importance (INI) for Medical Education namely, AIIMS-New Delhi and all new AIIMS, JIPMER Puducherry, PGIMER-Chandigarh, NIMHANS-Bengaluru.

Which Institutes are participating in INI CET Exam?

1. AIIMS New Delhi (Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110608

2. AIIMS Bhopal (Saket Nagar, Bhopal-462020

3. AIIMS Bhubaneswar (Sijua, Ptarpada, Bhubaneshwar-751019

4. AIIMS Jodhpur (Basni Industrial Area 2, Jodhpur-342005

5. AIIMS Nagpur (Plot No.2, Sector-20, MIHAN, Nagpur-441108

6. AIIMS Patna (Phulwarisharif, Patna–801505

7. AIIMS Raipur (Tatibandh, GE Road, Raipur-492099,

8. AIIMS Rishikesh (Virbhadra Road, Rishikesh-2498201

9. JIPMER, Pondicherry (Jipmer Campus Road, Gorimedu, Dhanvantari Nagar, Puducherry-6050026

10. NIMHANS, Bengaluru (Hosur/Marigowda Road, (Lakkasandra Wilson Garden) Bangaluru-560029

11. PGIMER, Chandigarh (Madhya Marg, Sector-12, Chandigarh-160012

Which authority will have the responsibility to conduct INI CET Exam?

  • AIIMS, New Delhi is the sole authority for conduct of all aspects related to INI CET such as application, conduct of exam, declaration of results and Seat Allocation

How many seats are offered through INI CET Exam?

Total seats offered: 744 seats

What is the exam pattern for INI CET Exam?

  • The examination for INI-CET is conducted in a computer-based test (CBT) mode. 
  • The duration of examination is 3 hours (180 minutes) consisting of 200 objective type of questions of varying types (including Single Correct Choice and Multiple Correct Choice questions). 

What is the Eligibility criteria for appearing in INI-CET?

  • The candidate must possess MBBS degree recognized by the National Medical Commission (previously MCI) and must have completed the required period of 12 months compulsory rotating Internship/Practical training 

  • A minimum of the following marks (aggregate of all professional MBBS professional examinations):

a) For candidates belonging to the SC/ST Categories 50% marks in aggregate
b) For all other categories including OBC/EWS Category 55% marks in aggregate 
c) For Persons with Benchmark Disabilities [PWBD] candidates 50% marks in aggregate

  • For Indian National graduated from Foreign Universities , marks obtained in the FMGE (Foreign Medical Graduate Examination) conducted by National Board of Examination (NBE), shall be considered in lieu of aggregate marks. The eligibility criteria of minimum marks shall remain as mentioned above in points a, b and c as applicable. 

Best MCQ Books for preparation of INI CET Exam 

AIIMS ESSENCE by Pritesh Singh

  • This book has authentic questions of AIIMS with exact language and options including image-based questions fully coloured
  • The references has been provided from latest editions of Harrison, Bailey & love, Robbins, Goodman & Gilman, Schwartz, Sabiston, Gray's anatomy, Park, Harper and Ganong along with thoroughly verified answers from subject specialist, faculty members of Dr Pritesh Institute and PG 
  • Explanations have been provided in tabulated form with only high yielding and relevant facts highlighted important, golden facts and previously asked questions 
  • Controversial questions and image-based questions are handled with special care to clear the concept explanations from latest editions of standard and most authentic text books line diagrams to minimise tedious efforts 
  • Mnemonics have been provided for better remembering, retention and recall

Read Other Interesting Posts:


Surgical NEET SS Exam Preparation and Books


Pattern of Surgical NEET SS Exam 

  1. You can choose a maximum of two super speciality courses for which your broad specialty qualification is eligible.
  2. 40% of the questions shall be from General Surgery and the remaining 60% shall be from the super specialty course selected.

Books for preparation for General Surgery NEET SS (40% Questions)

Surgery Essence By Pritesh Singh

Best Hospitals for DNB Neurosurgery

To help NEET SS successful candidates in selecting the best institute in the NEET SS counselling, below is our analysis on best DNB Neurosurgery institutes in India.

As per the 2019 NEET SS Neurosurgery Counselling Allotment in the Round 1, following are the inferences:
  • There was a total of 27 DNB Neurosurgery Seats allotted in the first counselling
  • First allotment for DNB Neurosurgery seat was at rank 98
  • Top hospital for DNB Neurosurgery in NEET SS at Rank 98 : Indraprastha Apollo Hospital Delhi, New Delhi
  • 11 out of these 27 allotments were for an institute in Delhi NCR
  • Last allotted DNB Neurosurgery seat was at rank 446
  • You can use this information to make your own priority list before going to counselling to suit your needs and wants.

Criteria to select best DNB Neurosurgery Institute

  • Prefer hospitals with more than 500 beds
  • Institutes associated with a medical college or a Trust hospital or Government entity with subsided costs for patient as they usually get more workload 
  • Institutes near medical colleges, so that you can attend CME and case discussions
  • Institutes with good academics and passing rates of the candidates
  • Get an idea of number of surgeries per day and prefer institutes with higher number of operative cases
  • Institute with better hands on experience
  • Institute with a better stipend
  • Institute with no bond

Below is the list of allocation of DNB Neurosurgery Institutes based on ranks.