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How to crack MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance (NEET Neurosurgery)?


Here is another blog for those who want to crack Neurosurgery entrance exams for MCh and DrNB. Here I will tell you in a step-by-step manner how you can go about your neurosurgery entrance exam preparation. "How to crack Neurosurgery entrance" will be discussed under the following headings:

What are the various examinations conducted for Neurosurgery Entrance?


The examinations for Neurosurgery which you can appear after your MS General Surgery are:
  • NEET SS Neurosurgery (MCh/ DrNB)
  • NIMHANS Neurosurgery (MCh)
  • AIIMS Neurosurgery (MCh)
  • PGI Chandigarh Neurosurgery (MCh)
  • JIPMER Neurosurgery (MCh)

What Online Course to join for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?

Usually people find it difficult to read Neurosurgery from books by themselves, because most of them have not had a practical exposure, thus grasping and remembering Neuroanatomical and Neurosurgical facts can be a daunting task. Check out this Conceptual Neurosurgery course for Neurosurgery Entrance Preparation which I will be teaching for Surgtest (App Link). Below are the salient features and contact details:

✅ Live and online classes  
✅ Video Recordings of all sessions
✅ Notes/slides prepared personally by the faculty 
✅ Topic-based conceptual classes: Answer any variation of questions asked on a topic! 

Download the π—°π—Όπ˜‚π—Ώπ˜€π—² π—―π—Ώπ—Όπ—°π—΅π˜‚π—Ώπ—² here to know the details and topic wise schedule: 

Whatsapp chat helpline - +91 7395939989 
Email - info@surgtest.com


What are the theory books to prepare for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?

Following are the theory books from which majority of the questions are framed:

Greenberg is prefered more because it is high yield even for Neurosurgery residents but it is difficult to grasp and remember. It is so exhaustive that you can be almost sure that you won't miss anything.

Ramamurthy and Tandon Manual ("Manual", Not the Ramamurthy Textbook) is better in terms that it clears your concepts of Neurosurgery, it is written in simple language, written by authors who are Senior faculties in AIIMS and in other institutes of national importance and you can finish reading it in 2-3 months time.

What are the MCQ books to prepare for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?


Amongst most of the MCQ books available in the market, no single book is satisfactory yet, you can check out these books for MCQs.


How much time is required to prepare for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?

In ideal conditions 1-1.5 years is necessary to grasp all neurosurgery concepts, finish a textbook and practice MCQs if you are reading along with your General Surgery Residency. 

If after finishing your general surgery residency, you are able to give your dedicated attention, the time required can be shorter. 

How many daily hours of study are required to prepare for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?


As any other competitive entrance in country like India, atleast 5-6 hours of dedicated study time on daily basis is required to crack the entrance exam.

What books to read for Neuroanatomy for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?

Best book for reading Neuroanatomy is undoubtedly Snell's Neuroanatomy. All diagrams and MCQs given in the book are important.

What are the important topics for the preparation of  MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?

Following topics or areas are very important in terms of bulk of questions asked:
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neurotrauma
  • Neuroncology 
  • Infections of brain
  • Neuropthalmology 

How is Neurosurgery as a branch?

I have listed down the pros and cons of joining Neurosurgery below so that you can make up your mind for starting your Neurosurgery preparation. Always remember at the end- Most important factor to decide is asking yourself - "What kind of work I will love to do for the rest of my life?"

  • Easy to get jobs both in metro cities and tier B cities
  • Good remuneration (One of the top most)
  • Challenging in terms of hours and techniques involved
  • Has a variety of procedures including Neuroncology, Brain Trauma Surgery, Endoscopic Surgery, Neurovascular Surgery, Spine surgery, Peripheral Nerve Surgery
  • Evolving fast with many new breakthroughs
  • Can also do individual practice and do basic procedures
  • High in demand
  • High stress
  • High patient load
  • High complications and mortality rates

When to start preparation for MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?


Make up your mind in 1st year of General Surgery residency itself on what branch you want to join and start preparing or atleast orienting yourselves to that specific branch in terms of both theoretical and practical knowledge. 

Start reading formally when you start to get more time for reading books from 2nd year of your residency.


Is there any Facebook or Whatsapp group for  guidance and preparation of MCh/ DrNB Neurosurgery Entrance?


For further guidance, I will be available at following groups on Facebook and Whatsapp.

Facebook NEET SS Neurosurgery Preparation

Whatsapp Surgtest Neurosurgery Group



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BEST SPECIALTIES AFTER MS/ DNB GENERAL SURGERY ? (PROS AND CONS) - PART 1

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT CHOOSING NEUROSURGERY CAREER

BEST SPECIALTIES AFTER GENERAL SURGERY ? (PROS AND CONS) - PART 2

BEST MCQ BOOKS FOR GENERAL SURGERY FOR INDIAN PG AND SUPER SPECIALITY EXAMS



Can Gas cause Headaches?
Can Gas cause Headaches?

Here is a common query by patients which makes us smile often. Gas causing headaches! 


And you would be surprised that this is a very common query being searched on Google every day.


Have explored the evidence related to it in this brief blog. Your views and comments are welcome. 


If you go through the searches people do on google related to headaches, one very intriguing query that will make you wonder why people have been searching for a correlation between Abdominal Gas and Headaches. 



Is there really a correlation or is it just a piece of misinformation prevalent in the community? Or is it being spread by alternative medicine practitioners carried on with traditional teachings without any scientific evidence? 



Below are the common related keyword searches and the search volumes in India (Source: Ubersuggest):

  • Does gas cause headache - 320 searches per month
  • can gas cause headache - 590 searches per month
  • can gas cause headaches - 260 searches per month
  • can gas cause headaches and dizziness - 90 searches per month
  • does stomach gas cause headache - 30 searches per month
Other related searches
  • can gas problem cause headache
  • why gas causes headache
  • is gas cause headache
  • will gas cause headache
  • headache due to gas during pregnancy
  • how does stomach gas cause headache
  • does gas in stomach cause headache
  • does acidity and gas cause headache
  • can gas cause a headache
  • do gas cause headaches
  • does gas problems cause headaches
  • headache and vomiting due to gas
  • how does gas cause headache
  • can acidity cause headache and vomiting
  • does gas give you headaches
  • does natural gas cause headaches
  • does gas cause migraines
  • can gas cause head pain
  • gas causing headache remedy

What is the direct answer to this popular question?

The answer to this question is NO, the gas cannot directly cause headaches in a normal individual unless you develop air embolism. This is seen in scuba divers when they do a sudden ascent after a deep dive. It can also be seen after head and neck injuries where air can make way into the blood circulation through a bleeding vessel.

However, due to this prevalent belief, there have been many studies that have found that some headaches do get relieved on the treatment of the associated gastric and intestinal disorders (causing gastric discomfort which is perceived as gas).

Gastrointestinal Disorders associated with Headaches

 Gastric and intestinal disorders which cause gastric discomfort (perceived as Gas) and have also been found to have some association to headaches are (1) :
  • dyspepsia
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • constipation
  • functional abdominal pain
  • inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD)
  • celiac disease
  • helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection.

Autonomic Aura as a Precursor of Migraine

In some studies, it was found that gastric discomfort did not lead to headaches but actually gastric discomfort may mark the start of a migrainous headache and is called an aura. This all happens due to the effect of constriction of brain blood vessels and its effect on the corresponding autonomic area which controls our gastrointestinal system responses.

Different Phases of Migraine and Associated Symptoms
Different Phases of Migraine and Associated Symptoms (Andreou, A.P., Edvinsson, L. Mechanisms of migraine as a chronic evolutive condition. J Headache Pain 20, 117 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-019-1066-0)


Lifestyle or Dietary Factor Leading to Headaches


There are many stimulants that can be a reason for the start of migrainous headaches along with separately causing gastrointestinal symptoms. These include:
  • Stress
  • Not eating on time leading to hypoglycemia
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of sleep
  • Having foods that are known to stimulate an attack of migraines: Dark Chocolate, Cheese, Chinese food, Canned meat, and Alcohol.

Pathways for Headaches in GI disorders

While in another set of studies, for example, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease by giving proton pump inhibitors led to the resolution of headaches. In this set of studies, some of the hypotheses which have been proposed for this association are (1):
  • central sensitization and parasympathetic referred pain
  • serotonin pathways
  • autonomic nervous system dysfunction
  • systemic vasculopathy
  • food allergy.
However, still we don’t have an exact answer to how gastric and intestinal disorders can have an effect on the brain. It is an area still open to research to suggest a causal mechanism. But one thing is for sure that human body systems are closely knit together and are likely to have a bigger interplay between them than what we yet understand.

Check out These Top selling Books on Headaches 









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References

1. T Noghani, Majid et al. “Gastrointestinal Headache; a Narrative Review.” Emergency (Tehran, Iran) vol. 4,4 (2016): 171-183.


2. Egilius L.H. Spierings (2002). Headache of Gastrointestinal Origin: Case Studies. , 42(3), 217–219. doi:10.1046/j.1526-4610.2002.02054.x 

3. Andreou, A.P., Edvinsson, L. Mechanisms of migraine as a chronic evolutive condition. J Headache Pain 20, 117 (2019). 




Reading all the prescribed books during General Surgery residency, everyone knows that it is easier said than done. So it is necessary to know about few basic textbooks which are a must read.

You must have heard a very popular saying

"He who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go to sea at all."
So the first step to learn surgery is reading the right books and having enough working knowledge for clinical and surgical application.

Best General Surgery textbooks for Surgery Residents 

For reading general surgery, first book that comes to mind is Bailey and Love. As most of us have read it during our MBBS. But usually by the time we join General surgery residency, all the information stored in our brain evaporates. Bailey and Love is the preferred textbook for MRCS Part A and B examinations which aim to test basic surgical knowledge.

While choosing the best textbook for surgery you need to keep Surgery NEET SS and DNB CET SS entrance in mind. For MCh and DNB SS, in terms of depth of information, Bailey alone is not adequate.

Amongst Sabiston and Schwartz, Sabiston is usually the choice for NEET SS and DNB CET SS entrance. One of them must be read.

For your university exams SRB is a life saver, cannot miss its mention here. SRB tackles most of the topics from which Long notes and Short notes are asked in MS Gen Surgery university examinations.       

Bailey and Love's Short Practice Of Surgery

Good for surgery basics and UG level.
If you want to choose one single textbook to read in your surgery residency, I would recommend Sabiston. Good illustrations and many high yield points asked in MCh/DrNB Entrance exams. Also, it is one of the best books to study Gi surgery from.


Schwartz's Principles Of Surgery

The only issue is information overload and not visually appealing.
 
Last-minute book for university exams.

Best Operative Surgery textbooks for Surgery Residents

Reading a separate book for operative surgery is an important but neglected aspect in a surgical residency. They are typically used as reference books. Once you know the list of cases to be posted on the next day, it is advised to read and understand the relevant anatomy and operative steps before going to watch or assist the case. Many studies show that lack of perfect knowledge of operative steps can adversely impact the performance in surgery.  Any one of the following operative surgery books can be used:




Video: BEST BOOKS TO READ DURING YOUR GENERAL SURGERY RESIDENCY

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Check out other posts on best surgery books:

SURGICAL NEET SS EXAM PREPARATION AND BOOKS

BEST BOOK FOR STUDYING CLINICAL EXAMINATION FOR MRCS PART B

TOP BOOKS TO STUDY CLINICAL SURGERY

HOW TO CRACK MRCS PART A AND THE BEST BOOKS FOR MRCS PART A PREPARATION

Article Medically Reviewed by: Dr Sandeep Moolchandani MS DrNB MHA

  1. What Is Inguinal Hernia?
  2. What Are The Symptoms Of Inguinal Hernia?
  3. How Do Doctors Treat Inguinal Hernia?
  4. What Is A Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery?
  5. How Does A Mesh Fix Hernia?
  6. What Is The Difference Between TEP and Tapp?
  7. What Are The Complications Of Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?
  8. How To Prepare Yourself For The Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?
  9. What Should I Expect After Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?


What Is Inguinal Hernia?


Inguinal hernia occurs when the abdominal contents protrude through an abnormal exit or a weakened area in the abdominal wall. Hernia can protrude through the lower side of the abdominal wall, on both sides of the groin. In this case, the layer of your peritoneum, that is the lining of your abdomen bulges out of the wall and forms a sac.



What Are The Symptoms Of Inguinal Hernia?


  • A bulge is found in the groin area.

  • Discomfort in the groin,

  • Pain around the groin,

  • Swelling of the scrotum in males.


How Do Doctors Treat Inguinal Hernia?


Inguinal hernia can be only fixed up by surgeries. If your hernia is minor and you are not symptomatic, you may not require a hernia surgery.  Your doctor may clearly proceed to watch for symptoms.


Gradually, hernia tends to get bigger when the abdominal wall gets weaker. Often, doctors recommend surgery to prevent a rare but serious stage which is known as strangulation. 


Strangulation appears when a piece of fatty tissue or a loop of an intestine is trapped inside the hernia and the blood supply is reduced or cut off. 


The signs and symptoms of strangulation are 


  • Nausea or vomiting

  • Hernia bulge occurs to be red, or  dark purple and swollen

  • Inability to move.

  • Intense pain.

  • Fatigue

  • Bloody stools

  • And also fever.


What Is A Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery?


For laparoscopic surgery, you'll acquire general anesthesia. Small incisions are made carefully by surgeons and your abdominal area is pumped up with a safe gas. This offers the operating surgeon a better appearance of your body organs. They'll prepare a few short small incisions near the hernia. They'll put a thin tube along with a very small video camera on laparoscope. The surgeon uses pictures from the laparoscope as an overview to fix the hernia using mesh. 


How Does A Mesh Fix Hernia?


Surgeons use mesh made from Polypropylene or any other kind of material to hold the protrusion of organs or tissues. They act as flexible scaffolds in hernia repair. They use sutures, or surgical glue to keep the mesh in place. 


Gradually, the tissue grows in the small pores of the mesh along with strengthening the muscle wall. 


The procedure allows shorter recovery time and less blood loss when compared to open hernia repair.


What Is The Difference Between TEP and Tapp?

What Is The Difference Between TEP and Tapp?



TEP


Tep ( Trans extraperitoneal surgery) is a laparoscopic or keyhole surgery that repairs the inguinal hernia from the outside of the peritoneum without inserting instruments through it and repairing it from the inside. The peritoneum is the sac that consists of all the abdominal organs.  Instead, the mesh seals your hernia from the outside of the peritoneum.


TAPP


In this case, surgeons enter the peritoneal cavity to repair the inguinal hernia. The mesh is placed inside the peritoneum to repair the hernia.


Both open and laparoscopic surgeries of hernia work well and are safe. But laparoscopic hernia surgeries include benefits like reduced postoperative pain, shorter recovery time, and decreased blood loss.


What Are The Complications Of Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?

Infection of the wound


Antibiotics can deal with minor infections around the suture site on the skin.

Deeper, chronic infections around hernia mesh are more challenging to deal with.

Clients frequently require surgical treatment to remove the mesh.


Blood clots


Those can develop since you are actually under anesthesia and do not move for an extended period.


Hernia mesh adhesions


Chronic, usually severe, discomfort might be a person's only signs and symptom of a mesh adhesion. The issue might even bring about serious digestive tract blockages.


Pain


In most cases, the area will be sore as you heal. Yet some people get chronic, lasting pain after surgical treatment for a groin hernia, for instance. Specialists think the treatment might damage specific nerves. Laparoscopic surgical treatment might trigger less discomfort than an open procedure.


Hernia Mesh Rejection

Materials in hernia surgical mesh may occasionally cause the body's immune response.

This can trigger the body to reject the mesh.


Re-occurrence


The hernia might come back after the surgical procedure. Research reveals that making use of mesh can lower your possibility of this occurring by fifty percent.

Surgeons started utilizing hernia mesh to get over this problem. The concept is that mesh can, even more, reinforce weakened tissue.

However, making use of mesh is very little warranty versus recurrence.


How To Prepare Yourself For The Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?


  • It is recommended to cleanse yourself with mild antibiotic soap the night before surgery or during the morning. 

  • You shouldn't eat or drink even fluids 4-6 hours before surgery. Your doctor may advise you to take your regular medications if needed with a sip of water. 

  • If you're under medications like aspirin, blood thinners, NSAIDs, vitamin E, they should be compulsory stopped one week before the surgery. Taking this medication may lead to increased blood loss during the surgery.

  • Brush your teeth along with rinse your mouth out with mouthwash.

  • Do not shave the surgical site; your operative team will certainly clip the hair closest to the incision site.


What Should I Expect After Laparoscopic Hernia Repair?


After the surgery is successfully done, you will be relocated to a monitoring room nearby and your vitals will be monitored by the team until you are awake. You will be awakened in usually one to two hours. 


You will be sent home in a day when you start drinking fluids, able to walk, and urinate. 


After laparoscopic surgery, your recovery time will be less, and will be back to work soon after. 


You could remain overnight if you got an open surgery of the hernia repair, a laparoscopic repair with a much longer anesthetic time, post-anesthesia problems as a sick stomach and vomiting or you are incapable to pass urine.



Reference Links:












Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries: Introduction

  • Common cause of disability 
  • Most common causes:–  RTA, Fall, Penetrating trauma, Sports 
  • Highly prone to traumatic injury:
  • Mobile, relatively unprotected, and its high position 
  • 60% of all spinal injuries occur in the cervical spine 
  • Subaxial cervical spine injuries include:
    • 2/3rd of all cervical fractures
    • 75% of all cervical dislocations 
  • One third of injuries occur at the level of C2, and one half of injuries occur at the level of C6 or C7.

Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries: Epidemiology

  • Bimodal Peak
  • Adolescents and Young Adults
  • Middle Aged Individuals (55 years)
  • Males accounts for 80% of injuries 

Laparoscopic gallbladder removal is a minimally invasive operative surgery through which small incisions and specialised laparoscopic equipment are utilized to remove an unhealthy or swollen gallbladder.

  1. What Is Gallbladder and What Is Its Function?
  2. What Happens If You Eliminate Your Gallbladder?
  3. What Are Gallstones And When Do You Require A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?
  4. What Are The Other Ailments To Get A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery Done?
  5. How Is A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery Done?
  6. What Are The Issues After A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?
  7. How Should I Prepare Myself On The Day Of Surgery?
  8. The Length Of Hospital Stay After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery


What Is Gallbladder and What Is Its Function?


The gallbladder is a tiny bag that is present just underneath the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced with the liver. Immediately after meals, the gallbladder is empty and also flat, just like a deflated balloon. Before meals, the gallbladder may have lots of bile and resembles the overall size of a little pear.


In response to signals, the gallbladder presses saved bile straight into the small intestine with a collection of tubes called ducts. Bile aids absorb fats, but still, the gallbladder itself is not crucial.


What Happens If You Eliminate Your Gallbladder?


Eliminating the gallbladder in a healthy and balanced person normally develops no visible problems with health or food digestion. However, there could be a marginal risk of diarrhoea and also fat malabsorption.


When the gallbladder is eliminated, bile produced by the liver can no more be conserved in between mealtimes. Instead, the bile goes directly right into the intestinal tract whenever the liver creates it. For this reason, there certainly is bile in the intestinal tract to combine with food as well as fat. It holds that there is not as much bile, however, there is enough to make it possible for the food digestion and additionally transmission of fat. People who have had their gallbladders removed do not require to restrict the fat in their diet routine.


What Are Gallstones And When Do You Require A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?


Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive juices that can easily form in your gallbladder. The clinical term for gallstone formation is cholelithiasis. Gallstones may quickly go out of the gallbladder and block the flow of bile towards the ducts and activate pain and discomfort. A gallstone within the common bile duct is known as choledocholithiasis. Cholecystitis is swelling of the gallbladder, which could occur all of a sudden (acute) over a longer amount of time

(chronic). 


Gallstone Pancreatitis is brought on by stones moving right into and blocking the common bile duct, the pancreatic duct, or both. A cholecystectomy might be suggested.


Cholecystectomy is the clinical removal of the gallbladder. Gallstones that develop biliary colic (sharp pain in the abdominal area brought on by spasm or blockage of the cystic or bile duct) are the most typical factor for a cholecystectomy.


What Are The Other Ailments To Get A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery Done?


  • Big gallbladder polyps
  • Gallstones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis).
  • Gallbladder swelling (cholecystitis).
  • Gallstones in the bile duct (choledocholithiasis).
  • Pancreatic inflammation (pancreatitis) due to gallstones.


How Is A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery Done?

You will certainly get general anaesthesia for your laparoscopic gallbladder removal. This shows you are unconscious throughout the operation. 

When you are asleep, the surgeon creates an incision near your navel and also inserts tiny equipment described as a port. The port establishes an opening that your operating surgeon can utilize to load the stomach full of gas. This develops the excess area to do the operation. Secondly, they place a little camera with the port. The camera reveals the procedure on a display in the operating room. As soon as the operating surgeon can see clearly, they place in extra ports to put long, slim equipment. Eventually, they carefully disconnect your gallbladder and additionally take it out through the incisions. Lots of procedures require 3 or 4 incisions, yet some have more.

When surgical therapy is wound up, the operating surgeon closes your incisions along with small stitches, staples, clinical tape or glue. These disappear as you heal if they are of absorbable one, so the doctor does not need to remove them later. If they are of unabsorbable type, they will have to be removed after 7-8 days.

Your operating surgeon might utilize a surgical robot to perform your procedure. Your medical professional uses the robot as an option to lead the instruments by hand. This is frequently described as a robot operation.

You may possess a specialized X-ray of your gallbladder and bile duct throughout medical therapy. This X-ray can discover gallstones in the normal bile duct. If you have them, the surgeon may be required to do additional treatments during the operation. Or you can require another procedure to remove them in the future.

It is essential to find out about your medical professional's training and also experience before your operation. Ask about their experience performing laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery as well as open gallbladder removal surgery.


What Are The Issues After A Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?

The complications are usually lesser than those in open surgery. Some of them are listed below

Wound Infection.

Some people create an injury or internal contamination right after gallbladder elimination. Indicators of a possible infection contain raising discomfort, swelling or pain, and additionally pus dripping from an injury.


Damages to the bile duct.

The bile duct can be harmed throughout a gallbladder removal. If that takes place during surgery, it may be possible to fix it swiftly.


Bile leak.

When the gallbladder is taken out, special clips are made use of to seal the tube that links the gallbladder to the main bile duct.

But bile fluid can rarely leak out right into the abdominal area due to slippage of clips.

Indicators of a bile leak include stubborn belly discomfort, really feeling ill, a fever and also a swollen stomach. To manage such complication a drain can be preemptively left so that this liquid could be drained off. The drain is removed if there is no bile leak.


Deep Vein Thrombosis.

Some people are most likely to have a greater possibility of developing embolisms after medical therapy due to various risk factors.

This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which affects the leg veins commonly.

This can be severe since the embolisms can circumnavigate the body and could block the flow of blood right into the lungs (lung blood clot). For this faster mobilisation is advised after the surgery.


Digestive Tract Issues

This is described as a post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS). It's thought to be caused by bile dripping right into places such as the belly, or by gallstones being left behind in the bile ducts.

In a lot of cases, signs and symptoms can stay for a few months.

Some people experience symptoms, consisting of:

  • tummy discomfort.
  • acid indigestion.
  • diarrhoea.
  • yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice).
  • a heat (high temperature) of 38C or over.


How Should I Prepare Myself On The Day Of Surgery?


The Day of Your Operation.

● Do not eat for 4 hrs or drink anything except clear liquids for a minimum of 2 hours before the operation.

● Shower and also cleanse your abdominal area and also

groin area with a mild antibacterial soap.

● Brush your teeth along with rinse your mouth out with mouthwash.

● Do not shave the surgical site; your operative team will certainly clip the hair closest to the incision site.


The Length Of Hospital Stay After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.


If you have a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, you will normally go to a residence in 24-48 hrs. You could remain quite longer if you got an open surgery of the gallbladder removal, with a much longer anaesthetic time, post-anaesthesia problems as a sick stomach and vomiting or you are incapable to pass urine.


Reference Links:


https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cholecystectomy/about/pac-20384818

https://www.healthline.com/health/gallbladder-removal-laparoscopic

https://www.sages.org/publications/patient-information/patient-information-for-laparoscopic-gallbladder-removal-cholecystectomy-from-sages/

https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/surgery-for-gallstones


Check out similar posts

Interested in knowing the anatomy visible during laparoscopy. Check out the video here.


Detailed Steps of Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery

Article Medically Reviewed by: Dr Sandeep Moolchandani MS DrNB MHA









Sir, I studied MBBS in Ukraine. Can i appear for MRCS Part A ?

  • To enter the examination, a candidate must possess a primary medical qualification that is acceptable to the United Kingdom General Medical Council for Full or Provisional Registration or to the Medical Council in Ireland for Full or Temporary Registration; overseas candidates must hold a primary medical qualification acceptable to the Councils of the colleges.
  • Prospective candidates who wish to check the acceptability of their medical degrees should see the International Medical Education Directory (IMED) on http://avicenna.ku.dk/database/medicine or the World Directory of Medical Schools on http://search.wdoms.org/. If the medical school does not appear on this list, candidates should contact the examinations department/section at the college to which they wish to apply for the examination for further clarification.

Hello sir , I need your help , because i cant find the answer , I am studying in Rostov state medical university Russia , after completing MBBS from here can i directly apply for MRCS ?

  • Yes you can if your institution is listed on the World Directory of Medical Schools. Check out here https://www.wdoms.org/


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Check out the links below for more information on MRCS Preparation:

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DOING MRCS
http://www.worldsurgeryforum.net/2017/07/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-MRCS.html

A DISCUSSION ON MRCS EXAM ELIGIBILITY

HOW TO CRACK MRCS PART A AND THE BEST BOOKS FOR MRCS PART A PREPARATION

MRCS PART B PREPARATION FREE VIDEOS

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT MRCS EXAM PREPARATION

PASTEST VS EMRCS VS ONEEXAM FOR PREPARATION OF MRCS PART A EXAM
Quotes for Surgeons


Here are a few assorted quotes related to the branch of Surgery. You might have read and heard a few of these before. Some of them are really amusing. Cheers to the passion of learning surgery!



It is better to open and see than to wait and see. 
-Sidney Cuthbert Wallace (1907)
Quotes for Surgeons


The flat abdomen is a good abdomen. 
-G A Decker

Abdominal wall closure: if it looks all right, it’s too tight – if it looks too loose, it’s alright. 
-Matt Oliver
Quotes for Surgeons



Better to have a piece of peritoneum on the bowel than a piece of bowel on the peritoneum.
Quotes for Surgeons


Two things surgeons fear the most are God and peritonitis. 
-Henri Mondor (1885 - 1962)
Quotes for Surgeons


Never let the skin stand between you and the diagnosis
Quotes for Surgeons


Who learns anatomy from books should operate on books only
Quotes for Surgeons


The advent of anaesthesia has made it so that any idiot can become a surgeon. 
-William Stewart Halsted (1852 – 1922)
Quotes for Surgeons



There is an inverse relationship between the surgeon’s ability and the frequency he asks for more muscle relaxants.
Quotes for Surgeons


A surgeon is someone who likes to operate, an anaesthetist is someone who doesn’t like to give anaesthetics. 
-David M. Dent
Quotes for Surgeon

He is not even fit for a haircut under local anaesthesia


Quotes for Surgeon



Blood brain barrier: the screen between the surgeon and the anaesthetist.
Quotes for Surgeons

The patient who can’t be intubated should be intubated.




Surgery is not an art, it is a personality disorder.

Have plenty of assistance but not many assistants. 
-Augustus C. Bernays (1854 - 1907)


A good assistant does not always become a good chief, but a bad assistant never does. 

A good chief has always been a good assistant. 
-Charles F. M. Saint (1886 - 1973)


A surgeon operates as good as his assistant permits.


The surgical resident is like a mushroom: kept in the dark, fed shit and expected to grow.

Poor surgeons can improve but poor assistants never become good surgeons. 
-Moshe Schein

All bleeding eventually ceases - when the patient is dead. 
-Guy de Chauliac (1300 - 1368)

The only weapon with which the unconscious patient can immediately retaliate upon the incompetent surgeon is haemorrhage. 
-William Stewart Halsted

There are four degrees of intra-operative haemorrhage: 1. Why did I get involved in this operation? 2. Why did I become a surgeon 3. Why did I become a doctor? 4. Why was I born?. 
-Alexander Artemiev


Blood bank is the surgeon’s gas station.


The most common cause of post-operative coagulopathy: poor haemostasis. Operative atlases never bleed.

The most important clotting factor is the surgeon. 
-Moshe Schein

In men nine out of ten abdominal tumours are malignant, in women nine out of ten abdominal tumours are the pregnant uterus. 
-Rutherford Morris (1853 - 1939)

A physician is someone who knows everything and does nothing.
A surgeon is someone who does everything and knows nothing.
A psychiatrist is someone who knows nothing and does nothing.
A pathologist is someone who knows everything and does everything too late.
— Anonymous

At a given instant everything the surgeon knows suddenly becomes important to the solution of the problem. You can't do it an hour later, or tomorrow. Nor can you go to the library and look it up.
— John W. Kirklin

On Saturday, I was a surgeon in South Africa, very little known ... [and] ... On Monday, I was world renowned.
— Christiaan Barnard

Sepsis is an insult to a surgeon.
— Anonymous

There is no better surgeon than a man with many scars.
— Spanish Proverb

I don’t dawdle. I'm a surgeon. I make an incision, do what needs to be done and sew up the wound. There is a beginning, a middle, and an end.
— Richard Selzer

As a surgeon you have to have a controlled arrogance. If it's uncontrolled, you kill people, but you have to be pretty arrogant to saw through a person's chest, take out their heart and believe you can fix it. Then, when you succeed and the patient survives, you pray, because it's only by the grace of God that you get there
            — Mehmet Oz

A good surgeon doesn't just concentrate on technical ability, but also on the appropriateness of what you're doing. 
— Benjamin Carson 

 

To be great, a surgeon must have a fierce determination to be the leader in his field. He must have a driving ego, a hunger beyond money. He must have a passion for perfectionism. He is like the actor who wants his name in lights. 
— Donald B. Effler

Best Quotes for Surgeons Video




Surgery Quotes By Dr Devi Shetty from the Documentary “The Surgeon’s Cut”

Here are some great surgery quotes from an episode of “THE SURGEON’S CUT “ featuring Dr Devi Shetty which is available on Netflix.

,Best Surgery Quotes



        1.For me Surgery is an art and all surgeons are artists.Whatever we do ..in the end it should look beautiful .If it looks beautiful it always works.


       2.As Surgeons we should be supremely confident of our skills .


     3.The worst thing is to see one of your patients you operated on die.The patient dies  once ,but we die a hundred times. And that particular day,believe me I’m in no mood to do anything .I cancel rest of the operations ..I just want  to  be left alone .


    4.My mother was deeply spiritual so when  something goes wrong,it is my spirituality that keeps me going .


5.I feel I am an instrument in the hands of God and I do exactly what he wants me to do .Nothing more nothing less.


6.Believing that someone else is in command and that I am an instrument in the hands of god  ,I do exactly what he wants me to do .This helps me get rid of my anxiety and nervousness .


7.The skill of surgery is given by God and it should be available to everyone .


8.I don’t find myself extraordinary other than the passion to cut and stitch .


9.To the 4000 children I operated in Kolkata :All I ask of you is -can you spend a few minutes of your precious time with someone who need it without expecting anything back in return .”



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