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Hypothalamus Anatomy : Neuroanatomy/ Neurosurgery Notes

    Hypothalamus Neuroanatomy/ Neurosurgery Notes

     Video Link:Neurosurgery written board crash course - hypothalamus 


    1. hypothalamus as the name suggests is directly underneath the thalamus and it's directly above the pituitary 
    2. borders of the hypothalamus can be drawn by a triangle 
      • line between the anterior commissure and a posterior commissure and it's called the ACPC line
      • line between the anterior commissure and the optic chiasm roughly boarded by the lamina terminalis 
      • line between the chiasm and the posterior commissure 

    1. Relations: 
      • Anteriorly: lamina terminalis 
      • floor or inferior: 
        • floor of the third ventricle the 
        • Tuber cinerium 
        • mammillary bodies 
      • Superiorly: thalamus 
      • Laterally: internal capsule 
      • Medially: cavity of the third ventricle 
    2. the hypothalamus can be subdivided into three major regions 
    • supraoptic region meaning that it is above the optic chiasm so if you draw a line coronal through this plane you get a bunch of nuclei that sits above the Chiasm namely
      • super optic nuclei
      • anterior nuclei 
      • Paraventricular nuclei
      • Suprachiasmatic nuclei 
    • Tuberal region which is above the tuber cinerium and it's nuclei are
      • ventral medial
      • ventral dorsal nuclei 
      • arcuate nuclei 
    • mammillary region: the nuclei included in this plane are 
      • mammillary nucleus 
      • posterior nucleus 
    1. Function of different nuclei 
    • paraventricular nucleus - oxytocin 
    • Supraoptic nucleus- ADH 
    • Destruction of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei causes diabetes insipidus.
    • anterior nucleus - thermoregulation, reduces body temperature 
    • suprachiasmatic nuclei - circadian rhythm 
    • Dorsal medial nucleus
    • ventral medial nucleus
      • very important
      • largest 
      • Satiety center 
    • arcuate nucleus 
      • also called the infundibular or paraventricular nucleus
      • controls anterior pituitary 
    • Posterior nucleus - thermal regulation - increasing the body temperature 
    • Lateral hypothalamic nuclei -  feeding Center





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